Monday, April 17, 2006
Women doesn't deserve freedom..!!??
There are many such quotations like this one in manusmrithi or any other smrithis. They look very much controversial in today's world.
I have an opinion on these smrithis. Rules(in smrithis) are written according to the then present situations. a rule which is today may become absurd after some days. You might be familiar to something called 'yuga dharma' like 'kaliyuga dharma'. every yuga has a set of rules. They are applicable to that yuga only. for eg., a scene in ramayana says that the omnipotent, omniscient Rama killed a 'sudra'(dont remember his name), because he was performing penance. Because according to that yuga-dharma, a sudra was not supposed to do that(again controversial!!). He was right as per that yuga's dharma. Now, couldn't valmiki(a sudra himslef!) ignore that petty scene to make his story more appealing?
If we go through the recent Kautilya's Arthshastras, there are many such rules which seem ridiculous these days. You may find a judgement which gives a death sentence to a burglary!!
Yes, according the above quoted smrithi it says that women have no freedom. which is quite arguable these days. Now, this is controversial to present day's sitiation.
There is also a quote which says ---
"Sruti Smrithi Purananaam Virodho Yatra Dushyate !
Thathra Shrotam Pramanam thu thayordhaithe Smrithirvara!"
(Wherever there appears a conflict between Sruthis (Vedas, Upanishads etc) and the Smritis and Puranas, what is declared in Sruthis must prevail) .
As per my knowledge, everyone are equal as per Vedas. Shruthis are what immortal, universal. This is my opinion.
Women doesn't deserve freedom..!!??
Posted at 03:51 pm by kaushik
Thursday, October 20, 2005
Flash memory is a form of nonvolatile data storage device based on the principles first used in EPROM devices. Flash comes in a number of form factors and interfaces, as well as a number of underlying technologies.
Flash consists of a number of identical cells. Each cell uses the fact that an isolated spot of dopant on an integrated circuit can hold a charge for a long time; even up to many years. EPROM works in a similar way; during programming, hot electrons are injected, through an insulating region, into the storage cell, where they are trapped. The charge in the cell can be detected by means of a field effect transistor placed just below the cell.
In an EPROM, the only way to return the trapped electrons to the substrate is to expose the chip to ultraviolet light, which generates charge carrier pairs in the normally insulating medium, rendering it conducting. In a Flash memory, a similar effect can be produced by applying an erase voltage to a row of electrodes around the cell.
Flash memory has the general characteristic that it can be read relatively rapidly, on the order of a few nanoseconds; however write cycles are much slower, being on the order of a few microseconds, and erase cycles are slower still, in some cases taking up to a second or so. Flash devices also have a limited lifespan, despite lacking moving parts. The injection of hot electrons damages the crystalline structure of the silicon gradually; most Flash devices have a lifespan of approximately ten thousand erases. How a Flash Memory Works?
Flash memory is available in a variety of underlying technologies, the most common being NOR and NAND. NOR Flash basically presents the same interface as an EPROM, most chips conforming to a standard known as CFI, the Common Flash Interface. CFI is popular because microprocessors can execute code directly from CFI flash, which means that CFI Flash can be used as a bootstrap. NOR flash is available in single-bit-per-cell and dual-bit-per-cell variants. Intel StrataFlash and AMD MirrorBit are examples of dual-bit-per-cell NOR Flash.
NOR devices drive their cells deeply into saturation in order to ensure data integrity over long periods of time. This means that while they do not require ECC, they are quite slow to write and very slow to erase. NAND Flash is very different. It uses small cells, driven only slightly into saturation. Typically NAND Flash will erase in a few milliseconds, will erase in small segments (typically 8 kilobytes at a time, as opposed to most NOR devices which have erase regions of 128 kilobytes) and can be rewritten up to a hundred thousand times before wearing out. NAND Flash has typically eight times the density of NOR Flash. The price that NAND Flash pays for this flexibility is that it is extremely error prone and absolutely requires the use of an error correction scheme. NAND Flash devices provide an out of band area in which to store checksums and other FEC data. Microprocessors cannot generally boot out of NAND Flash unless they are specifically designed to do so. NAND Flashes also have Multi-Level cell(MLC) types. The MLC NAND suffer from various disadvantages compared to SLC NANDs.
As erasing a Flash device wears it out, and Flash devices are generally not erased all at once, but rather a block at a time, a number of schemes for extending the lifespan of Flash devices by evening out the wear are in use. Counted wear levelling is the most sophisticated, maintaining a count of the number of times each block has been erased, and moving static data into frequently-erased blocks. Block rotation and block shuffling are simpler variants, suitable for lightly-used Flashes.
Most consumer contact with Flash comes in the form of memory cards. SmartMedia cards are simply NAND Flash chips in a card form factor. CompactFlash cards consist of one or a number of NAND Flash parts connected to an ASIC that provides ECC and wear levelling functionality, as well as presenting an ATA interface. Most PC motherboards have a NOR Flash for holding their BIOS firmware. Flash is, as HP marketing literature had it, the saver of the Universe.
Posted at 04:33 pm by kaushik
Tuesday, July 12, 2005
Oh no! you dont have Yahoo/MSN Messenger? or You are not privilaged to install a Yahoo/MSN messenger?
Gone are those days...
Check this out. you dont need to install anything. just click here and have fun with Yahoo/MSN/AOL messengers.
Posted at 02:15 pm by kaushik
Thursday, July 07, 2005
Its Google again with an ammmmmmmmmmmmaaaaazing software. Its Google Earth . You can literally zoom till the buildings level. We can watch any part of the earth. Believe me it is worth installing this free software. It works online. Unfortunately the resolution is not so good for India. 3D buildings wont appear on Indian subcontinent. but you can roughly identify around where your office/house comes.
check this immediately.
Posted at 11:45 am by kaushik
Sunday, June 19, 2005
Electronic projects - mini academic projects (E&C)
Students usually search everywhere for project work. Although they may succeed some times, but most of the times in vain. Some search for entire project so that it can be copy-pasted to complete their projects. I dont like such ideas. com'on friends, you have studied for 3-4 years engineering and you should try out now!! Some search for good ideas. I prefer students build their own ideas, but most of the times it is very difficult. And for those who want some ideas, i think here os a small list. Please dont ask me how to proceed. i dont have time to guide students. Thin over it, consult lecturers, WWW, books, etc.
(All Projects mentioned below are PIC Microcontroller based)
Projects on motors/Stepper motors
- Intelligent Path Finder
- Geo satellite tracking system simulated using Solar tracking unit.
- Path Tracing Robot.
Projects on RF technology
- Railway gate control system
- Bank locker security system.
- Remote control for controlling industrial equipments/Electronic/electrical appliances.
- Automatic vehicle tracking system in parking lanes using proximity card.
- Remote notice boards with PC interface for data communication.
- PC to printer data transfer.
- Object locator.
- Vehicle security system.
- Theft control system for laptops.
Projects with PC Interface.
- Bar code reading system
- PC timer for controlling industrial equipments.
- Wireless PC-PC communication using RF
- PC controlled switch.
- Wireless PC-PC communication using IR
- Serial Communication using MAX232
- Wireless keyboard interface
- Wireless PC-PC communication using IR
- Wireless mouse interface
- Wireless interface from PC to Printer.
- PC based fluid level controlling system.
- Library management system.
- PC based display system
Projects based on sensors
- Motion detector for door access control.
- LPG leak detector.
- Non contact Distance measuring system
- Solar tracking system
- Weighing scale system
- Cloth stiffness measurement in textile Industry.
- Digital auto fare meter.
- Soil moisture level measuring system
- Water sprinkling control system.
- Coin detecting system for games.
- Height and weight measuring system.
- Automatic flush control system.
- Anti collision system for automobiles.
- IR car remote control system using encrypted data.
- Tacho meter with non contact sensor for pulse counting.
- Fire & Smoke detector system.
- Hi-Tech Security system
- Air quality control system.
- Auto solar switch for street lights.
- Auto pay & Park system
- Auto siren system
- Programmable logic controller for process control.
- Multi mode operation of thyristors.
- Voice recognition system for controlling home appliances.
- Automatic platform ticket generating system.
- Smart card systems.
- Intelligent ambulance service system.
- Advanced secured voting machine.
- Real time ATM machine using smart card.
- Home automation with password facility for door access control.
- 3 digit token display system for Banks.
- Pre-paid gaming machine.
- Bank locker security system.
- Smart card based attendance monitoring system.
- Smart card based telephone bill payment system.
- Patient database management system for hospitals.
- Automatic room caller ID for Lodge applications.
- Time & Temperature display system.
- Weighing scale with billing application.
- Propeller clock system with DC motor.
- Quiz master.
- Petrol and diesel dispensary for fuel stations with display and cost details.
Posted at 05:03 pm by kaushik
Monday, January 24, 2005
Posted at 07:43 pm by kaushik
Thursday, January 13, 2005
Posted at 09:01 am by kaushik
Monday, January 10, 2005
check this blog. very interesting.
check this blog. very interesting pal. says- anything and everything about .NET.
but is also very informative. i like such blogs, rather just putting nonsense stuff(like i do in 'trivia')
anyways, if u r 'Netraj '- good blog boss!
Posted at 04:34 pm by kaushik
Monday, November 08, 2004
Posted at 11:52 am by kaushik
Friday, October 29, 2004
to send sms within india...
most of you might be knowing it, but i wanted to put the link onto my blog. click the link to send sms to any mobile within India. enjoy sending sms.
Posted at 11:12 pm by kaushik